Rust microservices

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Rust microservices

Because of this, you could be forgiven for thinking that RESTful microservices are the de facto standard, and the approach to strive for when designing and implementing a microservices-based system.

This is not necessarily the case. The reason why REST based microservices examples are most popular is more than likely due to their simplicity; services communicate directly and synchronously with each other over HTTP, without the need for any additional infrastructure.

As an example consider a system that notifies customers when a particular item is back in stock. This could be implemented via RESTful microservices as so:. It should be noted that although communication is point-to-point, hard coding services addresses would be a very bad design choice, and goes against the very fundamentals of microservices.

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Instead a Service Discovery mechanism should be used, such as Eureka or Consulwhere services register their API availability with a central server, and clients to request a specific API address from this server. Diving deeper, there are a number of fundamental flaws or things to consider in this implementation:. Due to the synchronous nature of REST, the update stock operation will not return until the notification service has completed its task of notifying all relevant customers.

Imagine the effect of this if a particular item is very popular, with s of customers wishing to be notified of the additional stock. Performance could potentially be severely affected and the scalability of the system will be hindered. The single responsibility of this service should be to update system inventory the inventory aggregate root and nothing else. In fact, it should not even need to know about the existence of the notification service at all.

The two services are tightly coupled in this model. Services WILL fail, and a microservice based system should continue to function as well as possible during these situations. Due to the tightly coupled system described above, there needs to be a failure strategy within the Inventory Manager for example to deal with the scenario where the Back in Stock Notifier is not available.

Should the inventory update fail? Should the service retry? It is also vital that the request to the Notifier fails as quickly as possible, something that the circuit breaker pattern e. Hystrix can help with. Even though failure scenarios will have to be handled regardless of the communication method, bundling all this logic into the calling service will add bloat.

One way to overcome the coupling of services and to move the responsibility of routing away from a microservice is to follow the pipeline enterprise pattern.This is a complete Rocket application. It does exactly what you would expect. Instead, it tries other matching routes or returns a Handling forms is simple and easy.

rust microservices

Simply derive FromForm for your structure and let Rocket know which parameter to use. Rocket parses and validates the form request, creates the structure, and calls your function.

Bad form request? What if you want to know if the form was bad? Change the type of task to Option or Result! Rocket has first-class support for JSON, right out of the box. It works like this: specify a data route parameter of any type that implements FromData. A value of that type will then be created automatically from the incoming request body. Best of all, you can implement FromData for your types! Hello, Rocket! JSON, out of the box.

And so much more. Essential features, built in. Templating Rocket makes templating a breeze with built-in templating support.

Learn More. Cookies View, add, or remove cookies, with or without encryption, without hassle. Streams Rocket streams all incoming and outgoing data, so size isn't a concern. Config Environments Configure your application your way for development, staging, and production. Testing Library Unit test your applications with ease using the built-in testing library.If you were to make a list of important programming languages that have appeared in the past decade, Go and Rust would almost certainly be featured on it.

Similarly, if you were to sit down and think about which programming languages are best suited to developing secure, microservices-friendly frameworks or applications today, you might find yourself debating between Go and Rust. The Go programming language Introduced to the public inGo which is also known as Golang was designed by Google engineers including Ken Thompson, of Unix fame. By taking advantage of goroutines, developers can easily build applications in Go that take full advantage of concurrency by deploying workloads across multiple CPU cores at the same time.

Concurrency and optimization are powerful features. The Rust programming language The history of Rust parallels that of Go in many ways. Rust was born as a personal project of a Mozilla engineer that started in the mids.

The language became publicly available in Doing so in a way that does not compromise security was also a primary consideration.

Toward that end, Rust makes it very difficult for developers to introduce flaws into code that could lead to buffer overflows or other memory-related vulnerabilities. Go and Rust are compiled languages, both are open source, and both are designed for modern, microservices-oriented, parallel computing environments.

Go vs. For my money, Go caters to a broader set of use cases, and is somewhat more flexible. Go makes it very easy to build a nicely factored application that takes full advantage of concurrency while being deployed as a set of microservices. Note that this does not mean that Go is insecure, by the way. Go is as secure as any other modern programming language.

In short: Rust is somewhat harder to work with, and is more oriented toward building applications with a narrow scope where security is the only thing that really matters.

In contrast, Go is ideal for building applications where you are concerned not only about security, but also a variety of other factors — which is probably your goal if you are a DevOps team that aims to build a flexible, extensible application or framework.

rust microservices

Other programmers are more likely to know them, which makes it easier to share code or add members to your team. Popular languages also tend to have better community support, documentation and plugins. Both are great, modern languages, and you would do well to consider both when deciding how to build a new application. That said, I, like a majority of programmers, tend to lean a bit more toward Go, generally speaking, because it caters to a broader set of use cases while still providing a high level of security and performance.

Goprogramming languagesRustsoftware development. Sonya Koptyev is Director of Evangelism at Twistlock.

Auth Web Microservice with rust using Actix-Web - Complete Tutorial Part 1

Get access to this and other exclusive articles for FREE! Article Tags Goprogramming languagesRustsoftware development. Subscribe to SDTimes.In order to get delayed messages while still using SNS we developed a simple microservice that listens to an SQS Queue, grabs messages, and publishes the message to the appropriate topic.

Because SQS allows timeouts we can have producers set the appropriate timeout on messages and get exactly what we need. The service works fairly well, but I like excuses to write rust, so I came up with an idealized version and started rewriting. Here is the Rust code for the project in its current state. Attempt to use bulk APIs where possible to cut down on cost, and to improve performance, since this program will spend most of its time in IO.

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And ideally the code should be reasonable and clean enough that if I were to ever try to get my company to deploy it my coworkers would have a simple enough time understanding how it worked. I care less about that part though, since I am unlikely to push this to production.

Design Microservice Architectures the Right Way

I decided early on that I would structure my code using actors. The work is mostly IO bound and I wanted to try to understand what patterns I would end up with while writing actor-oriented rust code.

I took some of my code form my actor crate and based the patterns off of there to start. The API was typed and made concurrency trivial. And then the actor interface, which packs function arguments into messages and passes them along. So you could have many actors sharing the same queue. The broker just generates a bunch of MessageDeleterActor structs using a shared queue among all of them. It then provides an identical interface to its workers.

Lastly, I needed a way to buffer deletes. In order to do this I stuck the broker behind a buffer actor. The buffer actor will receive delete requests, store them, and then flush its buffer when it hits its maximum capacity. In my tests, under load, the Buffer almost always flushes a full 10 messages. The rest of the code uses very similar patterns. Some other particularly interesting patterns are my MessageStateManager, which is an actor that maintains a messages state in SQS Invisible, Deleted, etc as well as the AutoScalingActor, which will emit messages to brokers letting them know when to scale up or down.

The design has worked very well in my tests, and rust facilitated that design. With some work I would have a lot of confidence in the correctness and stability of my code. The community was very helpful. I got a lot of help from a lot of people, usually within minutes of asking for help. One problem I ran into with this was enforcing ordering of events. I used to not guarantee that message deletes happened before the cancellation of timeouts, which led to errors when trying to extend the timeout of a deleted message.

This is all based on causal ordering - the guarantee that if I place a message A on a queue, and then message B, A will arrive before B. This allowed me to ensure that as long as I handled visibility timeouts and deletes via the same queue or series of queues I could guarantee ordering of events.

This is simply a pattern that I had to internalize, not really any fault of rust.John Frizelle, a Mobile Platform Architect at Red Hat, gave a talk on microservices wherein he provided some great advice about microservices. Most importantly, he provided guidance on when, where, and why or why not you should deploy them. Microservices are a method of breaking down an application into a suite of small, lightweight services, and are processes that typically communicate over HTTP. Building a single microservice is easy, building a microservice architecture is extremely hard.

It is basically distributed system design and development. If you are going to embark on a new microservice architecture, here are some challenges you will likely face. With your free Red Hat Developer program membership, unlock our library of cheat sheets and ebooks on next-generation application development. Traditional monolithic architectures have their own unique and well-understood challenges. If you are starting to see these block development efforts, microservices might be your answer.

If you are going to run microservices, understand why and what benefits you will receive. Start out from day one with automation. Trying to add it later will ultimately make your effort fail, you need to invest in the automation before starting to build. Your organization should mirror the microservice architecture. For a framework for building enterprise Java microservices visit WildFly Swarm and download the cheat sheet.

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Join Red Hat Developersa developer program for you to learn, share, and code faster — and get access to Red Hat software for your development. The developer program and software are both free!

To learn more, visit our Linux containers or microservices pages. Join Red Hat Developer and get access to handy cheat sheetsfree booksand product downloads that can help you with your microservices and container application development. Blog Articles. The Truth about Microservices. Everything you need to grow your career.However, on top of that, Rust adds a number of language features that make programs safer and more expressive, and development more productive.

The things that excite me the most about Rust are. Now, having rambled, the remainder of this post will walk you through creating a small but complete microservice — similar to the URL shortener I built for my blog. With microserviceI mean an application that speaks HTTP, accepts requests, speaks to a database, returns a response possibly serving HTMLpackaged up in a Docker container and ready to be dropped somewhere in the cloud. You can find the complete service on GitHub. The first thing we need to teach our web service is how to speak HTTP.

While there exist a number of high-level, Flask or Django like frameworks that abstract away most of the fun about this, we will opt for using the slightly lower-level hyper library to handle HTTP, which uses the tokio networking library and futuresto give us the ability to create a neat asynchronous web server. Now to the actual code. Hyper has the concept of a Servicewhich is a type that implements the Service trait and has a call function, which can be called with a hyper::Request object representing a parsed HTTP request.

That function must, for an asynchronous service, return a Future. Here is the basic boilerplate for this, which we can drop into our main. Note how we also have to declare some basic types for our service. Our future type is boxed, since futures::future::Future itself is only a trait and can thus not be returned from a function by value. Inside callwe currently return the simplest valid value, a boxed future containing an empty response.

To start the server, we bind an IP address to a hyper::server::Http instance and call its run method:. With the above code, hyper will start listening for HTTP requests at localhostparse incoming requests and forward them to our Microservice class. Note that a new instance is created for each new request.

rust microservices

We are now ready to start our server and curl some requests at it! Start a server in one terminal:. We have ourselves a basic server, written in Rust. By default, only error!

Finally, we return a response. We distinguish between different requests by matching on the method and path of the request. The method will be Post or Get in our case.Both languages seem to be competing for the same user base and they both seem to be systems programming languages, so there must be a clear winner, right? Both languages have a different scope.

Golang shines for writing microservices and for typical "DevOps" tasks, but it is not a systems programming language. I don't think Go is an elegant language. Its biggest feature is simplicity.

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Go is not even a systems programming language. While it's great for writing microservices and tooling around backend infrastructure, I would not want to write a kernel or a memory allocator with it. But with Go, you get things done — fast.

Auth Web Microservice with rust using Actix-Web - Complete Tutorial Part 1

Go is one of the most productive languages I've ever worked with. The mantra is: solve real problems today. Rust in comparison is hard.

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It took me many months to become somewhat productive. You need to invest a serious amount of time to see any benefit. Rust is already a powerful language and it gets stronger every day.

rust microservices

It feels much more like a pragmatic Haskell to me than a safer C. Don't get me wrong: I love Rustand it helped me become a better programmer. It is certainly a nice language to learn. The big question is, if it is the right choice for your next major project.

Here's the thing: if you choose Rust, usually you need the guarantees, that the language provides:. If you don't require any of these features, Rust might be a poor choice for your next project. That's because these guarantees come with a cost: ramp-up time. You'll need to unlearn bad habits and learn new concepts.

Chances are, you will fight with the borrow checker a lot when you start out.

Building a Microservice in Rust (With Actors)

Let's say, you want to check if a number is prime. The easiest way is to check if we can divide the number by any smaller natural number without a remainder. If not, we found a prime number! This approach is called trial division.


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